As humans we are capable of using our thinking skills.
Some humans can reason better than others can. Look around and ask people how they are making sense of the world!
Our reasoning tends to become explicit when someone else challenges it. Sometimes we can discuss, sometimes, argue, often times defend it.
Throughout life, we form goals or purposes and then figure out how to pursue them.
Reasoning is what enables us to arrive at decisions.



ACCORDING TO Richard Paul, in What Every Person Needs to Survive in a Rapidly Changing World, is intellectual humilty. Intellectual Humilty is the awareness of the limits of one's knowledge.... (see below)



If both parties discuss or argue their differences of opinion, they should remain calm and avoid some need to insult. Stop to reflect often (before things become uncivil or heated) what the topic and main idea is about and allow each other enough time to express their knowledge, experience, ideas and feelings. This model usually needs a mediator present, but it can be done without one!

In usual exchanges be aware of the multitude of issues that arise. Many people avoid conflict by posing as a comfortably agreeing participant. Others feel the urge to explore an idea's deeper significance. Don't be just present and then lazily avoid deeper understanding.

Sinc the world is becoming more complex, realize the valuable ability to avoid ambiguity! Communicative tools assist toward the arrival of clarity. Every minute people are caught in the mire of what they think they "should" be thinking versus what they actually do feel and think. Know yourself. Improve yourself.

Besides knowing the difference between one's own thoughts, feelings, assumptions and preconceptions, learn to identify types of arguments.

A great book to read is called "Asking the Right Questions" by M. Neil Browne and Stuart M. Keeley. It explores aspects of argument structure unlike other books. In short, most of the time people assume they know meanings and assume they they understand the source, but try to be kind and confident with a question like "what do you mean by that?"

There is a difference between a prescriptive and a descriptive issue. A prescriptive issue is described as a question about the way something (such as the world) ought to be. A descriptive issue is described as a question about the way something is, was, or will be.

Maturely tabling the issues is the first step in exploring beyond conventional ways of perceiving and thinking. Remember the "bumps" in past exchanges? Did anyone learn from the experience? Or did the "bumps" turn into more heated bumps, nastier, less civil, less constructive jags in the course toward understanding... (had somehow an argument shifted gears?)

Another useful book is "Beyond Feelings, A Guide to Critical Thinking," by Vincent Ryan Ruggiero. Ruggiero adeptly examines how a mind has been influenced to think a certain way, and writes simply while encouraging students to 'move beyond feelings and apply critical reasoning skills'.

ACCORDING TO Richard Paul, in What Every Person Needs to Survive in a Rapidly Changing World, is INTELLECTUAL HUMILTY. Intellectual Humility is the awareness of the limits of one's knowledge, including sensitivity to circumstances in which one's native egocentrism functions self-deceptively; sensitivity to bias and prejudice in, and limitations of one's viewpoint.

Intellectual humility is based on the recognition that no one should claim more than he or she actually knows. It does not imply spinelessness or submissiveness. It implies the lack of intellectual pretentiousness, boastfulness, or conceit, combined with insight into the strengths or weaknesses of the logical foundations of one's beliefs.


Listen first with an open heart. If you are confused, try to decipher what the communication is all about. A lot of people feel that they communicate well by denotating and connotating. Others are direct, others are careful with facts and tone.

Denotation and Connotation 

Subjective and Objective - by
Grant Hewson

What in the heck is the difference? How can a person hold a view that is either objective or subjective? By implementing into one's schema differences in definitions, one might consciously hold onto the properties described by each word. So how can that be a pure view, I ask?

For instance, sub·jec·tive as an adjective, the first definition says: 1. existing in the mind; belonging to the thinking subject rather than to the object of thought (opposed to objective). But when reading the defintion of objective, the first one says: 1. of or having to do with a material object.

Well, duh. Or not so duh. That is a difficulty many people have. Including myself!

The question I pose to you, is that can one of these definitions exist without the other? Read along the additional definitions for each. Email me your thoughts.


2. Pertaining to or characteristic of an individual; personal; individual: a subjective evaluation.
3. Placing excessive emphasis on one's own moods, attitudes, opinions, etc.; unduly egocentric.
4. Philosophy . relating to or of the nature of an object as it is known in the mind as distinct from a thing in itself.
5. Relating to properties or specific conditions of the mind as distinguished from general or universal experience.
6. Pertaining to the subject or substance in which attributes inhere; essential.
7. Grammar . a. pertaining to or constituting the subject of a sentence.
8. Obsolete . characteristic of a political subject; submissive.


1. Of or having to do with a material object.
2. Having actual existence or reality.
3. a. Uninfluenced by emotions or personal prejudices: an objective critic.
b. Based on observable phenomena; presented factually: an objective appraisal.
4. Medicine Indicating a symptom or condition perceived as a sign of disease by someone other than the person affected.
5. Grammar
a. Of, relating to, or being the case of a noun or pronoun that serves as the object of a verb.
b. Of or relating to a noun or pronoun used in this case.
1. Something that actually exists.
2. Something worked toward or striven for; a goal. See Synonyms at intention.
3. Grammar
a. The objective case.
b. A noun or pronoun in the objective case.
4. The lens or lens system in a microscope or other optical instrument that first receives light rays from the object and forms the image. Also called object glass, objective lens, object lens


Social Networking’s Societal Enhancement - D. Mulder

Communication takes time, effort, messages, and usually it needs speed.  Expedience in transferring thoughts, photos, and important information has become a 21st century trait for nearly half of American adults.  Never before has society been able to group as effectively, communicate with purpose, speed, thoroughness and power. With minimal keystrokes, society’s growing insatiable need for information connections are met.  All within a hand’s reach (i.e. IPod, Smart Phone or more) messages are read and shared at a record fast pace to a global audience who use networking as their news sources (27.8%), ranking below that of newspapers (28.8%) and radio (18.8%). Since 1990, its improved efficient pathways inform, educate, persuade and entertain the masses more cohesively than traditional modes, thus advancing society.

Needing to know global information quickly, forty-eight percent of people in 2011 first learned breaking news while using social networks.  In turn, by using something like e-mail, Twitter, Facebook, Skype, or the information is discussed.  If socially aware individuals need explicitness, academic or investigative thoroughness, the latest accurate information can be accessed quickly by Google searching.  Googling is available in format modes from Google Scholar to Google Image to Google News.  Entertainment needs and social gossip are met by joining Facebook.  Is it a business quest? Interactive Chambers of Commerce have sites. Find a specialist, expert or new employee on  Academic? Many libraries have their academic library databases online, available to users?
Internet using students (59% of college level) according to Newsweek, report using social networking sites to discuss educational topics and 48% use sites to talk about school assignments.  Scholarly and peer reviewed library information is accessible in abstract or subscription form for the life-long learner.

Increasingly affordable mobile devices facilitating face-to-face online interaction provide opportunities for all people, not just some of them.  Individuals who are forced to be stationery (socially isolated, disabled and the elderly) can be constantly connected and updated.  This would rarely happen otherwise.  Social networking sites give small businesses a support group not readily found offline.

Why arrange an off-line face-to-face meeting to discuss information? Old fashioned face-to-faces are for family dinners and work for creature comforting party/dating.   Connect digitally and walk away with a permanent record of what’s been said!

Mobile communication devices have given news writers the ability to report interesting or important stories in a same traditional fashion as in print. The great addition is readers can largely instantaneously respond by online participation. The online version of Batavian, a New York newspaper, features journalist Howard Owens who believes all journalism will adopt this same model.

Response capability is among the most important benefits for society. Public safety information or worrisome rumors and gossip are big community nuisances.  Snopes,com shows factual from fictional. The US Military and Department of Veterans Affairs both intercede using social networking to help prevent suicide. The World Health Organization uses social media to disseminate health information and counter rumors. Political sites help people collectively accomplish community goals by crowd sourcing and crowd funding.   A mother was able to find a kidney donor for her sick daughter, for instance.

If the entire world woke up tomorrow and social networks all ceased operating, then one must fall back to the 1980’s -- but prepare to start dialing thousands of telephone numbers, one by one and give an identical message per call. That is just to maintain the status quo of mass communication which today social networks provide. One may as well purchase postage stamps, too. Then be prepared to wait a week for a response. Today those thoughts are ridiculously archaic, it won’t happen. Social Networks are here to stay, probably longer than societal enhanced bottled water and airplanes.




Organize yourself

Vocabulary in Context - To know the definition of the words is more challenging if you only look at one word by itself. When a word is used in a sentence, though, you will see the word used in context. Seeing it in context provides clues and defining it becomes much easier.

Main Ideas  - Learn how to recognize main ideas. “Get the point!”  Recognizing the main idea or point is the most important key to comprehending. Think of the main idea as the shield over several supporting details. Many people visualize the shield as an umbrella, the general versus the specific. Understand the topic, it will lead you to the main idea.

Supporting Details –  Close relations are supporting details after learning what the main idea is. Once we “Get the point” we can back the point up by support. Supporting details are reasons, examples, facts, steps, or other kid of evidence that explain a main idea. Recognizing major details to minor details will help you organize the important issues to remember about the topic’s main idea.

Implied Main Ideas -   Sometimes finding the main idea requires one to  search for clues.  Not clearly stated in one sentence but the idea is supported by details.  Remember, the topic is who or what something is about. The main idea is “so what about it, get the point!” about the topic.  Clues showing implication aren’t clearly stated, so ask what the author’s main point is about the topic.

Relationships - Explaining or clarifying ideas are used when showing relationships. A common method author’s use showing relationships to make ideas clear are by using transitions in specific patterns of organization.  There are several types of way one can detect transitions to see how the organizational pattern is.

Inferences -  Discovering the ideas that are not stated directly is called making inferences, or drawing conclusions. One can make an inference or two that might be most logically based on information that is suggested. 





Think about a thing, a person, an idea, a word. A concept is an organization of all of these, in your mind. Think about the word "success>"

Success, according to some people, means being superior to others.

Success, to others, means seeing the people --- who you respect for their individuality -- feel achievement through their hard work. That includes YOU. Success is learning. Success is knowing your perceptions are the lens of who you are, where you stand.

What you speak, write, share, and tend to learn are reflections of your current state of mind. It is hard work to remain in a constant good state of mind.

Do you practice attaining an equilibrium, a less stressful, beneficial or peaceful state? What a challenge! Especially when problems multiply! Most successful people know that a problem or issue has multiple aspects. They know that there are many definitions of an "ideal" and more of "perfection." Are you learning to examine what exactly an ideal state of mind happens to be? Who is it who said that the perfect state of mind is one who can look at something seriously yet playfully, at the same time?

But how does the word "Duality" differ from the word "Dichotomy", and how do they both differ from "Polarity?

First, understand what Black and White Thinking is!

It is otherwise known as "My way or the Highway"

thinking, or "All or Nothing" type of thought process.

With the wisdom of duality, you realize the coexistence of strengths and weaknesses. You go beyond a fantasy that any one thing is either all "good" or all "bad." Instead, you embrace each thing or person for its uniqueness.

If you are a scientist, a leader, a teacher, a host, or hostess, a boss or a parent you might be in a position to implement the strengths of one individual to compensate for some weakness of another.

(Amone Motwane, The Wisdom Institute, 2000.)



Does your day ever progress or digress according to the attitude you take of the world around? you insist that it conform to your preconceptions of what is or isn't, of what it should or shouldn't be? How about exercising our minds to adjust our thinking.

Snared by the perfection or failure mentality? Is a person either "good" or "bad"?

The human desire for certainty occurs when seeking to see things in exclusive categories. Is it better for your mind and for your experience in this life to see certainty or better if you consider the complexities of an issue?

Black and White thinking, some say, is like an infection, reducing the terms of discussion unnecessarily, eliminating an entire range of possible ideas and often demonizing others by implicitly categoring them in the "Black" --- the evil that we are supposed to avoid.

Have you suffered from depression? Even in mild forms....isn't a result of viewing the world in black and white, categorizing experiences and events in the extreme terminology that fit with their generally negative perpective on life.

Since many people categorize everyone else, sometimes even including themselves, they forget something very important. Nature, or evolution does not always --- or hardly ever -- conform within the human world of changing technological advances. Dynamics affecting social attitudes differ than dynamics within a discrete and natural world.

When you look at people, what is it you notice first? The color of their hair, the color of their eyes? How about their demeanor. Can you determine whether they are feeling a certain way by their demeanor? The more we watch people, the more we learn. The more we engage ourself in trying to understand the people around us, the better we can communicate with them. The more we can see how we really are when comparing and contrasting.

People who share many cultural beliefs usually don't need to try very hard to read about each other or ask many questions. Friends can tell right away when another friend is feeling happy or sad, is needing something or is having a difficult time in trying to communicate.

We will compare and contrast ourself to other people, including people who are friends. Living with each other's differences is not always easy, but trying to be a good partner is essential to improving bonds with one another. How strong is your ability to assess whether you contribute or whether you are a taker in any type of relationship?

Do you read and think? Did you acquire your beliefs on your own? Do you know when to lead, to talk? Do you know when to follow, to listen? How well do you feel about yourself when you just sit in silence, alone?

Continue to learn about your strengths as a person. Continue to learn to read better.

To practice your concentration, you might enjoy reading about: YOGA or understand more about dimensions in your life by learning a daily aspect: DAILY TUNE UP THOUGHTS .. Many authors regularly refresh their thoughts while listening to Charles at THE MAZ.

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