hey doggie

PERCEPTION: The artistic faculty for recognizing the aesthetic significance of aspects of the visual world which can be conveyed to the spectator by an act of creation.

PERPENDICULAR STYLE: The last phase of Gothic architecture which prevailed mainly during the 15th century, in which the vertical tendency of Gothic is emphasized and ornamentation is elaborated.

PERSPECTIVE: The third dimension may be represented in a drawing or painting by the application of the principles of perspective which are based on the commonly observed phenomena that objects tend to appear smaller as they recede from the eye of the observer, and that receding lines appear to converge upon one or two common vanishing points.

PICTOGRAPHY: The art of conveying ideas by means of pictures, signs or symbols suggestive of an object or an idea.  This primitive form of writing is the basis of the Egyptian hieroglyphics, and a more undeveloped form is found in the picture writing of the North American Indians.

PICTURESQUE:  The representation of nature in a painting in an exaggeratedly sentimental or romantic style.

PIGMENT:   The coloring matter used by the painter, which usually exists as a powder and is prepared for use by binding with a vehicle such as oil, gum or emulsion.

PLANES:   The interrelation of planes (or two-dimensional areas) is one of the fundamental problems of composition.  The surfaces of objects may be regarded as so many more or less simple planes which, according to their position (vertical, horizontal or oblique) in relation to the source of illumination, reflect light in varying degrees, thus modifying color and tone values.  Observation of this phenomenon assists the artist in accurately representing three-dimensional space.

D.Mulder --- darlamuse.com -- JUST READ IT! --- contact darla at darlamuse@earthlink.net

D.MAKEN --- dmaken@earthlink.net

G. HEWSON --- Dr. Grant Hewson at granthewson@earthlink.net




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"Vision without execution is hallucination." --- Thomas Edision


The Following is from RUGGIERO'S book, BEYOND FEELINGS


Problems people face with critical thinking:
Ø Errors of Perspective
Ø Errors of Procedure
Ø Errors of Expression
Ø Errors of Reaction

Errors of Perspective

The error How to Recognize and Deal with It
Poverty of Aspect --- Limiting one’s perspective on issues; having tunnel vision. Poverty of aspect sometimes is attributable to intellectual sloth; other times it is a by-product of specialized education and training. To avoid poverty of aspect when evaluating issues, look beyond the familiar, examine all relevant points of view, and understand before judging.

Unwarranted Assumptions --- Assumptions are ideas that are taken for granted rather than consciously reasoned out. When what is taken for granted is unjustified by one’s experience or by the situation, the assumption is unwarranted. Because assumptions seldom are expressed directly, the only way to identify them is to “read between the lines” for what is unstated but clearly implied.

Either/or Outlook ---- The expectation that the only reasonable view of any issue will be total affirmation or total rejection. This error rules out the possibility that the most reasonable view might lie between the extremes. To avoid this error, consider all possible alternatives.

Mindless Conformity ---- Adopting others’ views unthinkingly because we are too lazy or fearful to form our own. To overcome this error, develop the habit of resisting the internal and external pressures and make up your own mind.

Absolutism ------- The belief that rules do not admit of exceptions. This belief causes us to demand that the truth be neat and simple, when in reality it is often messy and complex. To avoid this error, accept the truth as you find it rather than requiring that it [fit] your preconceptions.

Relativism ----- The belief that no view is better than any other, that any idea you choose to embrace is automatically correct. To avoid relativism, remind yourself that some ideas and some standards of conduct are better than others and that the challenge of critical thinking is to discover the best ones.

Bias For or Against Change ---- Bias for change assumes that change is always for the best; bias against change assumes that change is always for the worst. To avoid both errors, give any proposal for change a fair hearing and decide, apart from your predisposition, whether the change is actually positive or negative.

Errors of Procedure

The Error How to Recognize and Deal with It
Biased Consideration of Evidence ----One form of this error is seeking evidence that confirm your bias and ignoring evidence that challenges it. Another is interpreting evidence in a way that favors your bias. To avoid this error, begin your investigation by seeking out individuals whose views oppose your bias, then go on to those whose views support it. Also, choose the most reasonable interpretation of the evidence.

Double Standard ---- Using one set of criteria for judging arguments we agree with and another standard for judging arguments we disagree with. To avoid this error, decide in advance what judgment criteria you will use and apply those criteria consistently, regardless of whether the data in question support your view.

Hasty Conclusion ---- A premature judgment–that is, a judgment made without sufficient evidence. To avoid drawing a hasty conclusion, identify all possible conclusions you select any one. Then decide whether you have sufficient evidence to support any of those conclusions and, if so, which conclusion that is.

Overgeneralization and Stereotyping ---- Overgeneralization is ascribing to all the members of a group a quality that fits only some members. A stereotype is an overgeneralization that is rigidly maintained. To avoid these errors, resist the urge to force individual people, places, and things into hard categories. And keep in mind that the more limited your experience, the more modest your assertions should be.

Oversimplification ------ Oversimplification goes beyond making complex ideas easier to grasp–it twists and distorts the ideas. Instead of informing people, oversimplification misleads them. To avoid this error, refuse to adopt superficial views and make a special effort to understand issues in their complexity.

Post Hoc Fallacy ---- this error is rooted in the idea that when one thing occurs after another, it must be the result of the other, when in reality the sequence may be coincidental. To avoid the post hoc fallacy, withhold judgment of a cause-and effect relationship until you have ruled out other possible causes, including coincidence.

Errors of Expression

The Error How to Recognize and Deal with It
Contradiction ---- To claim that a statement is both true and false at the same time in the same way. To avoid this error, monitor what you say and write. The moment you detect any inconsistency, examine it carefully. Decide whether it is explainable or whether it constitutes a contradiction. If it is a contradiction, revise your statement to make it consistent and reasonable.

Arguing in a Circle ---- Attempting to prove a statement by repeating it in a different form. To avoid this error, check your arguments to be sure you are offering genuine evidence and not merely repeating your claim.

Meaningless Statement ---- A statement in which the reasoning presented makes no sense. To avoid this error, check to be sure that the reasons you offer to explain your thoughts and actions really do explain them.

Mistaken Authority --- Ascribing authority to someone who does not possess it. To avoid this error, check to be sure that all the sources you cite as authorities possess expertise in the particular subject you are writing or speaking about.

False Analogy ---- An analogy is an attempt to explain something relatively unfamiliar by referring to something different but more familiar, saying, in effect, “This is like that.” A false analogy claims similarities that do not withstand scrutiny. To avoid this error, test your analogies to be sure that the similarities they claim are real and reasonable and that no important dissimilarities exist.

Irrational Appeal ---- Appeals to emotion, tradition, moderation, authority, common belief, and tolerance may be either rational or irrational. They are irrational, and therefore unacceptable, when they are unreasonable in the particular situation under discussion and/or when they discourage thought. To avoid this error, make sure your appeals complement thought rather than substitute for it.

Errors of Reaction

The Error How to Recognize and Deal with It
Automatic Rejection --- The refusal to give criticism of your ideas (or behaviors) a fair hearing. To avoid this error, think of your ideas as possessions that you can keep or discard rather than as extensions of your ego. This will make you less defensive about them.

Changing the Subject Abruptly and deceptively turning a discussion away from the issue under discussion. To avoid this error, face difficult questions head-on rather than trying to avoid them.

Shifting the Burden of Proof --- Demanding that others disprove our assertions. To avoid this error, understand that the burden of supporting any assertions rests with the person who makes it rather than the one who questions it. Accept the responsibility of supporting your assertions.

Straw Man ---- To commit the error of straw man is to put false words in someone else’s mouth and then expose their falsity, conveniently forgetting that the other person never said them. To avoid this error, be scrupulously accurate in quoting or paraphrasing other people’s words.

Attacking the Critic --- Attempting to discredit an idea or argument by disparaging the person who expressed it. To avoid attacking the critic, focus your critical thinking on ideas rather than on people who expressed them.

(taken from: Beyond Feelings, A Guide to Critical Thinking, 8th ed. by Vincent Ryan Ruggiero; www.mhhe.com)



DO I KNOW IT, WELL....UH...I. ah,...

What is the activity that everyone claims is important but few people have actually mastered? Well, here is only some of its synonyms:

Fancy, reason, imagine, reflect, meditate, ruminate, muse, speculate, ponder, weigh, realize, dream, consider, conceive, cogitate, deliberate, digest. You know what the word is... it starts with "T" and ends with "K" and is only one syllable!

The late American philosopher William Barrett observed that "history is, fundamentally, the adventure of human consciousness" and "the fundamental history of humankind is the history of mind."

And there is an important distinction between thinking and feeling. Feeling is a subjective response that reflects emotion, sentiment, or desire; most feelings arrive automatically. Thinking has categories: reflective, creative, and critical. Mixing thinking and feeling incorporates values, beliefs, questions, emotions, experiences, ideals, convictions, and a whole lot more pondering, weighing, sensing, ... subjectivity vs. objectivity. Kind of fun?


Stereotyping is Natural but Usually Harm Promoting.

Blindly choosing to accept and exercise unfair stereotyping is a result of years and years of socialization.   Stereotyping is brought to us by family members, friends, schools, churches, and above all, the media reporting with its attempt to entertain us while informing us.  The media encompasses anything that communicates to us outside our immediate in-groups:  literature, movies , television sitcoms, books, comic books. These have featured Mid- Easterners in movies during decades of various mid-east upheavals.  Many of these images have fed inaccuracy.  Xenophobia is the result when ethnic groups are feared; sensational fear about Middle Easterners has been fed into the West’s consciousness. 

The mainstream consciousness of Islam-worshipping Mid Easterners was heightened into mass anger, confusion and hate after what occurred in September 2001.  An already accelerated media reporting of sensational incidents would use the words Muslim, Islam, Islamic, Arab, Mid-Eastern, terrorist, Taliban, extremist, Jihad, Bin Laden in one story, failing to educate the receiver (reader / viewer), thus the information was confusing in its sensation –grabbing. Stereotyping easily was propelled with the fear that the mere words ‘Middle Eastern terrorist’ endorsed.   Exposing that Muslims are to-be -feared was in-part fueled already by accepting the ignorance and prejudice by in-groups and by the media. Angry, mean, hateful, ignorant depictions of middle-easterners looking characters with their darkened desert skin and straight thick dark hair and beards had been for years viewed in movies, comic books and television programs. (Shaheen)  
In reality and physically, today’s non-Western immigrants differ slightly from the earlier immigrants, although their ethnic groups are strongly structured.   Today’s second-generation group had (prior to 2001) assimilated with only a few less struggles than their forefathers.  The majority of citizens maintain knowledge of the stereotypes.  As stated in an article by Wingfield and Karaman, the media has pronounced their bearded dark skins as “swarthy and villainous,” comic books characterize their features with mean expressions, holding knives, excited about killing, and tunic/turban/burka wearing, camel-riding individuals are portrayed as unreasonable and barbaric. An analysis of Arab depiction in the media was documented by Dr. Jack Shaheen. There have been several decades of cinematic painting unfairly, ugly pictures of Mid-Easterners for the U.S. majority’s entertainment. The minorities here and across the sea also paid attention to them.

 ,.....From an Aug 2008 Arab American News Article, it is stated that social activist Jordan’s first lady Queen Rania used the Web. Her mission is to break stereotypes of Arabs, to create a dialogue between Arabs and Westerners.  Ethan Zuckerman who is cofounder of a citizen’s media website Global Voices says it is going to take some time before it is meaningfully affecting global stereotypes.    Queen Rania and her husband started a You Tube Page and asked Westerners to send in their stereotypes about Arabs and Muslims and open a discussion on how those negative images could be changed.  Rania’s first video received 1.4 million views with weeks, with 83 video responses from other users and generated nearly 6,000 comments.  She hopes even though it is an entertainment device, she is anticipating serious discussion.
“There is more understanding than I had anticipated, more anger, more bias, but also more interest, more support and more engagement.  Enhancing global mentalities is what it is all about.” (Seeley)

Accustomed to being entertained by the media and by literature and art, people need to be enlightened about the truth in an unforced way. We all need to understand or know the plight of Muslim Americans, about the ridiculous prejudices and misconceptions some people in the West continue to hold onto. The policies of the dominant majority were well illustrated in a recent piece of fiction  by Amy Waldman, called The Submission

In summary, other methods that can enlighten are more documentaries, more topics or storylines on major channel sitcoms that could be viewed, involving Muslims or Middle Easterners in a story and providing an interesting and non-disrespectful twist, incorporating a memory and a lesson, lighting them instead of darkening them. Also, lessons should not wait until community college level, a good illustration of all colors and faiths could begin for a child as early as pre-school.




Comparison and Contrast

Comparison involves the examination and explanation of similarities between concepts or objects. We compare the two students to see how else they are similar to one another.

Contrast involves the same strategy, looking at each of the students, but focuses on the differences

See the differences (contrasting) and similarities (comparing). We frequently ask ourselves, “How are those similar?”  or “What makes that different?” We might note that both of what we are analyzing will offer the same thing in one arena, but we will need to contrast to see the differences in other aspects of it.   Whether we choose to focus on similarities or differences, the purpose of comparisons and contrasts is to make a decision or judgment about the items examined:  We engage in comparisons and contrasts to decide issues and ideas and things.





Have you learned about inferences?  What does it mean, “to infer”?  To infer is a skill in detecting the meaning that the author or speaker has not explicitly spelled out. Look at it as blatancy versus slight evidences.

A reader -- or listener -- spots these slight cues in the supporting details.

Nearly everyone has heard the term or idiom “Reading between the lines.” Probably you’ve been able to see or feel inferences.

The ability to infer is a skill, it is detection.One can imply or suggest – an idea.   By analyzing or digesting the supporting details, one understands implications.  The meaning is implied, inferences are made. 

People’s daily actions imply something. Someone might not actually tell you verbatim to communicate they are in a certain mood. Their actions will show that they are bored, mad, happy or hopeful.  For instance, slamming something down is an implication. One might infer that their action means they are mad.

On the line following the next sentences, write what you infer.


______________________________________________________ .

You derived the inferences by reasoning them out. You made some conclusions based on the facts in the statement or the circumstances. With some you had to guess or speculate.


Do you know who Betty Crocker is?  Does an apron wearing female in a kitchen help the image come to mind?  She is the longtime female symbol of a cereal company, General Mills. In its home service department  a woman by the name of Marjorie Child Husted started the Better Crocker name by replying to consumer inquiries with a Betty Crocker signature.  Her image first appeared in 1921 and was used for advertising to housewives. The housewives, it was presumed, would identify with a woman who looked much like themselves, collectively, and therefore would trust Betty Crocker’s advice on flour, cereals, and other processed foods.  She was designed to look like a contemporary woman, and the twenties were an era of revolution in women’s appearance.  The dress reform of the times included short skirts, bobbed hair, and new makeup.  Better Crocker did have a few updated fashion changes throughout the years. This reassured the consumers that a woman could be both stylish and care about what their families ate.  A woman drew the original Betty Crocker. Her name was Neysa  McMein who had also done covers for major magazines prior to World War I and would go on to draw patriotic posters for World War II. 


People approach problem-solving in a varied degree of ways, usually by combining thinking, processing and reasoning. We organize our world through concepts and all of our schema (cognitive structures) will differ according to the amount of concepts in our mental repertoire.  We test ideas using relationships and then forming concepts. Future problem solving is used when mentally setting up a preconceived notion of how to look at a problem.

Reiterated, a basic “taxonomy” structure statement shows how we organize our concepts:  “A bird is an animal that has wings and flies.”  We organize our world through concepts.  We test ideas using relationships and then forming concepts.  “Animals with wings are the ones that fly.”   A mental set or set is the preconceived notion of how to look at a problem.   This may help future problem solving.  “A bird cage is good for housing birds.”  The more connected and populated our schema, the better we can examine problems or try different solutions.

A person’s schema is the cognitive structure that includes ideas about events and objects. The objects are categorized based on how well they match with existing attributes.  “This animal has wings, so it is probably a bird.” Scripts are ideas about the way events typically unfold.  “When people go to the movies, they sit in their seats and are quiet.”  Prototypes are the representative or “usual” type of an event or object.  “A scientist is someone who is good in math and does not write poetry.”

Other types of psychological lexicon below might help a thinker figure out their own approaches to problem solving processes and methods.  One of the most favorite that Reading teachers use is “metacognition.”


Logical reasoning errors:


Feed Wisely
Three meals a day? How does a restaurant cook (or house cook, usually a parent or caregiver) manage space and time in the kitchen and retain a healthy weight? All that sample tasting, trying to please everyone's metabolism, each appetite slightly differing as do their taste buds. Some people could snack all day, others can't miss one of three full-portioned meals. Many feel only the slightest hunger upon waking and their stomachs growl late in the morning. Do we need dessert every evening? Does everybody including the kitchen chef need the after dinner nighttime or t.v. snack?  

We all form a personal habit, a relationship to food. Let a nutritionist be the judge of nourishment in calories, vitamins and minerals, and allow the fitness expert to judge fat to muscle tone ratios. By age 18 most of our bodies wrestle the seams with unburned habitual portions and poor quality of food-types. Our cultural vanity says to figure out something else than "eat it all because they are starving over seas!"

Svelte professional cooks from all over shared their own slender-maintenance secrets. They realize that the first three bites of anything taste the best. So stop shoveling it in. They've learned how mounting calories occur in sample tasting they do; they've learned it not necessary after cooking to sit and eat a meal. Other cooks drink a few glasses of water and sprinkle sweetener in it before they start the stirring and sample tasting. One tiny taste instead of three or four, that way! Other cooks will use raw vegetables to munch on, celery, carrots, green beans, radishes, cauliflower. They'll use a carrot stick to lightly dip into the sauce-for-test instead of a large tablespoon to gulp. It helps them feel full while they prepare, and they won't swallow three meals worth of calories while preparing one.

Exercise is another issue here but it fits well into the total fitness and calorie intake need scheme. One cook says she takes a bite for every stair she climbs, another measures laps to chews. One cook I know will ride her bike to the store and back, another will not allow herself to have dessert unless she takes her daily walk, bike ride or swim. Finding the exercise that fits one’s style can not only add years to one’s life but improve the muscle tone and outlook – toward good food!




Poetry is very difficult to define. Writers of poetry usually have an imaginative procession unlike expository or exemplary descriptive writing.  Poems often engage a human feeling about something or of a poignant experience.  Often, rhythmic language is used to evoke emotion in the reader or audience. Poetry has been known to use meter and rhyme. Appreciators of poetry know it is an ancient form that has gone through numerous and drastic reinvention over time.  Because of poetic work’s nature being both individual and authentic, overall the rules often become ambiguous! There does, however exist some guidelines for categories of poetry.

Besides the rhythm (which basically is the “flow” of the poem and the “beat”) there is stanza pattern, line length and different types of stops or pauses.  Figures of speech such as denotation and connotation, hyperbole, imagery, irony and metaphor often populate a poem.  Sound devices such as consonance (repetition of consonant sounds), assonance (repetition of vowel sounds), and alliteration (two or more words in close succession beginning with the same letter or sound) will often amuse the reader, especially while reading aloud. Understanding poetry also requires how its meaning is interpreted which is usually divided into plain sense, feeling, tone, intention, subject, theme and moral.

There are many types of categories of poems, all which could incorporate any of the above figures of speech and/or structure, sound devices or variety of interpretation.
Some scholars of literature and poetry will agree that three MAIN types are narrative, lyrical and dramatic.





Oh-h, Professor!!

Great professors are smart, hard-working, creative, and some are well-liked. Much of the time professors and teachers feel successful.  But do students or other humans normally spend their recreational time praising and comparing qualities of teachers?  What if professors and other educators had a television awards program much like the movie stars or the famous musicians? Try to imagine and contrast the profession of teaching to other spectator interests or to less educated speculator fields. No doubt, they would first be admired globally as well as increasingly evaluated.  Also, the product of what they accomplish would be more revered and celebrated.  The quality of lessons taught and learned would have higher value to humans than a night watching fiction or listening to music!   For instance, the buzz would become education. Educators could have their fans on Twitter and Facebook. Also, the grocery store cashier racks would display tabloids featuring their wonderful habits and excellent humanitarianism.  One day professors could be taken to work in limousines!



Selbie and Jocelyn were both sweet cherub looking girls. But they were tomboys whose fortune --or not – was having a mother, Dolly, whose profession was that of a child-star’s seamstress. The mother loved lace and frills, the more petticoats and platinum shoes, the better her children appeared.  Yes, they were adorable all right, but little Jocelyn would never stay still. She was too young and quick and curious to care about what she was wearing.  She could go naked and be fine with it.  Because their mother liked to sew, rips could be mended but stains could not be washed out. After breakfast on Sundays before church, in order to avoid ripped skirts, greasy blouses, muddy shoes, knotty sweaters or sticky fingers, their mother learned first she would have to get herself ready.  Second, she would start the engine to warm up the car. The very last thing, right beside the garage door, with station wagon’s exhaust blowing in Dolly’s hair, she’d put Jocelyn’s dress on, then wipe her hands and face with a washcloth.  Jocelyn was usually carried by Dolly to their car and she was not allowed to touch anything until she got to the church. Dolly would say then it was up to God to keep the child’s appearance unblemished.




Bully to You, Bully to Me

Scientists who have been studying bullying behavior for more than a century categorize different types of bullying.  According to religious author, Frank Peretti, there are two basic reasons why anyone bullies, and most often they have a long-term, deep troubling need that has not been met. The other is that they think it is acceptable behavior, or “cool” to pick on someone. Common bullying methods are physical, verbal, indirect, social alienating, and cyber. “Physical bullying” includes any physical contact that would hurt or injure a person. Taking something that belongs to someone else and destroying it is physical bullying.  The second is “verbal bullying,” for instance name-calling, making offensive remarks, or joking about a person's religion, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or the way they look.  Very prevalent is the type labeled “indirect bullying” which includes spreading rumors or stories about someone, telling others about something that was told to you in private, and excluding others from groups. “Social alienation” is when a bully excludes someone from a group on purpose.  Cyber-bullying is done by sending messages, pictures, or information using electronic media.

Hey, I say, teach your kids that the reason weapons exists is because people create reasons for wars. So ill. So ridiculous. So sad. Yes, pathetic.



Smarty Pants ?

A cognitive theorist named Howard Gardner has for many years studied human behavior and  varying intelligences.  Most of Gardner’s theories start out with the hypothesis that there are nine forms of intelligence.  One person may naturally be good at something without trying hard to learn it; this is their native form of intelligence.  Often people could be born with several different forms of natural intelligence and automatically be skilled with certain tasks and behaviors. The forms range from logical / mathematical to intrapersonal intelligence.  The value of each intelligence often changes depending on cultures. The type of natural intelligence a person has could be beneficial to them if it eventually ties them to a specific or satisfying career.   


Morning D.J.

Every person wakes up feeling differently. Some brains are sharper than others at an earlier hour. You know who you are. Since this complex organ is responsible for running the body and thinking critically or creatively, it is important to treat it right.  Health, wellness and fitness experts say that people should find appropriate warm ups to daily hone their brain – which to some people is like a muscle -- each and every morning.  Activities, exercises and puzzles are employable for a warm-up or work out.  Mental activity will strengthen brain cells and may create new nerve cells, according to the Alzheimer's Association. Puzzles warm up the brain and stimulate nerve cells. The American Health Assistance Foundation recommends crossword and Sudoku puzzles as good exercises to stimulate cognition in the brain. Since everyone’s brain is special, one must find their own warm-up activity, for no mind should slumber all day.


Wonder - Explore

What aliens do that we don't do. Imagination is a human trait so this is all speculation. Aliens might look at us and wonder what the thing "laughter" is all about because in the world they come from there is no recognition of humor. So nothing is funny. They don't laugh. These aliens have something called "aowrpcviaw" and it is because they "asfoawdip" and we don't. Think about how humor works in your brain, how something might not be universally funny but is geographic or cultural. What if we couldn't cry? But what if we never felt like it because nothing was sad?




Only a century ago, it wasn’t uncommon for people dying prior being forty years of age.

Just think, when in the next few decades the economy improves, the healthy and educated people will start bearing fruit like bunnies again. The average age could become 100 years old!

Due to the current lifespan increase..... one could live long enough to possibly see about five generations beneath them before they die. Nothing like being the king or queen of the family mountain! Humans will be saying "Happy Birthday" to a great great-great-great grandparent! Talk loudly and learn to repeat! How about crowds during a family reunion, don't trip on all those rockers!   The names your GGGGG parent would need to remember. By the time you were born, they’d be forgetting it as soon as they heard your name, bet you. Unless your name is the same as theirs. Or better pharmaceuticals for the memory...and, uh, for other things!